Knitting 4D Garments with Elasticity Controlled for Body Motion

ACM Transactions on Graphics (SIGGRAPH 2021), Vol.40, No.4, Article No.62 (16 pages), August 2021
Zishun Liu, Xingjian Han, Yuchen Zhang, Xiangjia Chen, Yukun Lai, Eugeni L. Doubrovski, Emily Whiting, Charlie C.L. Wang


In this paper, we present a new computational pipeline for designing and fabricating 4D garments as knitwear that considers comfort during body movement. This is achieved by careful control of elasticity distribution to reduce uncomfortable pressure and unwanted sliding caused by body motion. We exploit the ability to knit patterns in different elastic levels by single-jersey jacquard (SJJ) with two yarns. We design the distribution of elasticity for a garment by physics-based computation, the optimized elasticity on the garment is then converted into instructions for a digital knitting machine by two algorithms proposed in this paper. Specifically, a graph-based algorithm is proposed to generate knittable stitch meshes that can accurately capture the 3D shape of a garment, and a tiling algorithm is employed to assign SJJ patterns on the stitch mesh to realize the designed distribution of elasticity. The effectiveness of our approach is verified on simulation results and on specimens physically fabricated by knitting machines.

Source Code


@article{Knitting4D2021, author = {Liu, Zishun and Han, Xingjian and Zhang, Yuchen and Chen, Xiangjia and Lai, Yu-Kun and Doubrovski, Eugeni L. and Whiting, Emily and Wang, Charlie C. L.},
title = {Knitting {4D} Garments with Elasticity Controlled for Body Motion},
year = {2021},
issue_date = {August 2021},
publisher = {Association for Computing Machinery},
address = {New York, NY, USA},
volume = {40},
number = {4},
issn = {0730-0301},
url = {},
doi = {10.1145/3450626.3459868},
journal = {ACM Trans. Graph.},
month = jul,
articleno = {62},
numpages = {16},
keywords = {computational fabrication, 4D garment, knitting, elasticity control} }